Analysis of organisational and situational factors associated with police use of force: a systematic review



Published 09-02-2024
Alvaro Merida Verde Francisco Javier Castro Toledo Zoraida Esteve Bañon


Police confrontations involving the use of force or firearms represent critical situations with significant implications for the safety and lives of individuals. This article focuses on a systematic review, both quantitative and qualitative, of these confrontations, exploring their relationship with relevant organisational and situational factors. Among the findings, it is worth noting the predominance of organisational variables in the analysis, as opposed to situational variables. The situational variables most frequently examined include age, race, location, type of weapon, gender, resistance of the subject, and experience of the officer. In contrast, organisational variables highlighted include police control, organisational structure, internal management and officer training. It is important to note that the studies reviewed have certain limitations, such as small sample sizes and lack of standardised scientific methods, which hinder the practical application of the results in the field of police training. Finally, this study offers recommendations for future research, focusing on the establishment of standardised and consensual criteria for a more uniform analysis of police confrontations. This initiative would significantly contribute to a better understanding of these critical incidents and ultimately promote more effective police training in their management.

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