Jean-Jacques Rousseau is a singular enlightened thinker who takes reason as one of the causes that brings about the degradation of humanity. Likewise, he argues, reason masks humanity's real condition of unhappiness, inequality and lack of solidarity. Based on a thorough reading of Rousseau's writings, this paper aims, firstly, to examine Rousseau's vision of moral virtues, paying attention to the process of moral education. Secondly, to discuss the place of civil religion in politics and related issues like the return to nature, the human responsibility for evil or the role of conscience as an infallible moral judge. Lastly, the paper studies the reception of Rousseau's ideas by Robespierre up to the point of turning him an apostle and precursor of the French revolution.