This is a survey paper on some of the relevant themes of Chomsky's linguistics and philosophy of language. We provide some basic biographical information and a discussion of some of the most important aspects of his contribution to the theory of grammar. Chomsky's research program in the theory of grammar, started 50 years ago with the publication of Syntactic Structures (1957), and can be said to have revolutionized linguistic inquiry, at the same time that it launched what is today called the «cognitive revolution» in the study of mind. We present in a succinct manner some basic concepts of Chomsky's theorizing, including the idea of a specialized mental organ for the acquisition of language (Universal Grammar), the choice of I-language as the relevant target of theoretical research, and the formal elaboration of an explicit, generative theory of grammar. We also offer a perspective on the way Chomsky's linguistics conflicts with some classical views in the philosophy of language concerning the mind/body problem, intentionality or the evolution of language. Finally, we present a brief outline of his recent Minimalist Program, which focuses on the nature of the design features of language.