Entiendo el antisemitismo. Imágenes y prejuicios sobre los judíos en sionistas, antisemitas y maskilim



Publicado 02-10-2023
Iñaki Iriarte


Este artículo examina el hecho de que algunos autores sionistas –como Herzl, Nordau y Brenner- expresaran opiniones en torno al carácter y el estado moral de los judíos que hoy pasarían por antisemitas. Asimismo, trata de entender por qué antisemitas como Drumont y Simonyi manifestaron su apoyo al proyecto de Herzl de crear un Estado judío en Palestina. Aunque se ha afirmado que todo ello vendría a demostrar el parentesco ideológico entre antisemitismo y sionismo e incluso el oculto carácter antisemita del sionismo, el texto desecha estas hipótesis y demuestra la relación del fenómeno con la crítica radical hacia la tradición judía que llevaron a cabo algunos miembros de la Haskalah, la Ilustración judía. Por último, pone en contexto las coincidencias entre sionismo y antisemitismo y muestra su condición fundamentalmente retórica y táctica, destacando su intención radicalmente diferente. 

Abstract 245 | PDF Downloads 200 XML Downloads 6



antisemitismo, sionismo, Haskalah, Ilustración judía, prejuicios étnicos

ABITBOL, M. Les deux terres promises. Les Juifs de France et le sionisme, Olivier Orban Paris, 1989.

ATZMON, G., “Antisemitismo, en el corazón del discurso político judío”, 2013. Recuperado en https://www.hispantv.com/noticias/opinion/134061/antisemitismo,-en-el-corazon-del-discurso-politico-judio

ARENDT, H., Los orígenes del totalitarismo, Alianza, Madrid, 2006.

AVINERI, S., The Making of Modern Zionism. The intellectual Origins of the Jewish State, Basic Books, New York, 1981.

BEIN, A., The Jewish Question. Biography or a World Problem, Associated U.P.Cranbury-London-Missisauga-New York, 1990.

BEN GURION, D., “The imperatives of the Jewish Revolution”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1944], pp. 606-620.

BERKOWITZ, M., Western Jewry and the Zionist project, 1914-1933, Cambridge UP., Cambridge, 1997.

BLOCH, Ch., “Notes on Zionism by Max Nordau”, Studies on Zionism, vol VII, 1971, 27-35.

BLUTINGER, J. C., “The Birth of a Radical: "L'hiyot oh Lachdol" as a Turning Point in the Development of M. Y. Berdichevsky's Anti-historicist ThoughT”, UCLA Historical Journal, 18, 1999, 95-110

BRENNER, J. H., “Self-criticism”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1914], 307-311.

BROWN, W., "Rights and Identity in Late Modernity: Revisiting the 'Jewish Question'". In SARAT, A.; KEARNS, Th. (eds.), Identities, Politics, and Rights, University of Michigan Press. 1995. 85–130

DUBNOW, S., History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, 2005. Disponible en http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/15729/pg15729-images.html

DRUMONT, É., La France juive: essai d’histoire contemporaine, 1886. Disponible en https://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/La_France_juive

DUHRING, E., The Jewish Question, 1891. Disponible en https://archive.org/stream/EugenDuhringOnTheJews/Eugen%20Duhring%20on%20the%20Jews_djvu.txt

EPSTEIN, L. J., The Dream of Zion: The History of the First Zionist Congress, Rowman & Littlefield, Maryland, 2016.

FRIEDMAN, I., “Theodor Herzl: Political Activity and Achievements”, Israel Studies, 9, 3, 2004, 46-79.

JAFFE, B., “The British Press and Zionism in Herzl's Time (1895—1904)”. Transactions & Miscellanies (Jewish Historical Society of England), 24, 1970-1973, 89-100.

GILMAN, S. L., Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the Jews, The Johns Hopkins UP, Baltimore, 1990.

GILMAN, S. L., Smart Jews. The Construction of the Image of Jewish Superior Intelligence, University of Nebraska, Lincolsn and London, 1996.

GIRARDET, R., Mythes et mythologies politiques, Seuil, Paris, 1986.

GOLOMB, J. Nietzsche and Zion, Cornell UP, Ithaca, 2004.

GORDON, A. A., “People and Labor”. HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1911], 372-374.

GORDON, A. D., “Our task ahead”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1920], 375-377.

HEINE, H., Páginas escogidas, 1918. Disponible en http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra/paginas-escogidas-1/

HEINE, H., On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, 2012. Disponible en https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/heine-on-the-history-of-religion-and-philosophy-in-germany/6C5FFA721E04350DDE3631754823B2D4

HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959.

HERZL, Th., Theodor Herzls Tagebücher, 1895-1904, Jüdischer Verlag, Berlin, 1922-1923.

HERZL, Th., The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl. Raphael Patai ed. 5 vol. Herlz Press ad Thomas Yoseloff, New York, 1960.

HERZL, Th., Zionist writings, dos vols., Herzl Press, New York, 1975.

HERZL, Th., The Jewish State, Dover Publications, New York, 1988.

HESS, M., “Rome and Jerusalem”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1862], 119-139.

HEYWOOD, D., Moses Hirschel and Enlightenment Breslau. A City and its Jews in the Late Eighteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2020.

HOURWITZ, Z., Apologie des juifs en réponse à la question: Est-il des moyens de rendre les juifs plus heureux et plus utiles en France?, 1789. Disponible en https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k757387.image

KAPLAN, E., The Jewish Radical Right. Revisionist Zionism and its Ideological Legacy. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 2005.

KARMY, R., “El racismo sionista”, Hoja de Ruta, 46, 2014. Recuperado en http://www.hojaderuta.org/ver_articulos.php?id_texto=801&id_revista=59

MASSAD, J. A., The Persistence of the Palestinian Question. Essays on Zionism and the Palestinians, Routledge, London and New York, 2006.

KATZ, J., From Prejudice to Destruction: Antisemitism, 1700-1933, Harvard UP, Harvard, 1980.

KLATZKIN, J., “Boundaries”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1914-1921], 321-325.

KORNBERG, J. Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism, Indiana UP, Bloomington, 1993.

LAQUEUR, W., A History of Zionism, Weindenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1972.

LAZARE, B., Antisemitism, its history and causes, The International Library Publishing, New York, 1903.

LEVENE, M., “Lucien Wolf: Crypto-Zionist, Anti-Zionist or Opportunist par excellence?” Studies in Zionism, Vol 12, 2, 1991,133-148.

LEWIS, B., Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999.

MAHRER, G., “Herzl’s return to Judaism”. Herzl Year Book. Vol II, Herzl Press, 1961, 28-55.

MARR, W., Der Judenspiegel, 1862. Disponible en https://juedische-geschichte-online.net/quelle/jgo:source-102

MARR, W., Der Sieg des Judenthums über dar Germanthum, 1879. Disponible en https://www.gehove.de/antisem/texte/marr_sieg.pdf

MASSEY, I., Philo-semitism in Nineteenth Century German Literature, Niemeyer, Tübingen, 2000.

MILLER, R., Divided Against Zion: Anti-Zionist Opposition to the Creation of a Jewish State in Palestine, 1945-1948, Routledge, Londres, 2015.

NICOSIA, F., Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany, University of Vermont, Burlington, 2008.

NIEWICK, D., “Solving the “Jewish Problem”: Continuity and Change in German Antisemitism, 1871–1945”, The Leo Baeck Institute Year Book, Vol 35, 1, 1990, 335–370.

Nirenberg, D., Anti-Judaism: the Western Tradition, Norton and Company New York_London, 2014.

NORDAU, M., “Speech to the First Zionist Congress”. HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1897], 240-241.

PEDREGAL, R. “El sionismo es antisemita”, en https://rebelion.org/el-sionismo-es-antisemita/ 2014.

PENSLAR, D. J., Israel in History. The Jewish State in Comparative Perspective, Routledge, London and New York, 2007.

PHILIPPE, C., La personnalité collective des nations. Théories anglo-saxonnes et conceptions françaises du caractère national, Bruylant, Bruxelles, 1998.

PINSKER, L., “Auto-emancipation: an Appeal to his People by a Russian Jew”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1881], 181-198.

POLIAKOV, L. The History of Anti-Semitism, 4 vol. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1977.

ROSE, P. L., Revolutionary Antisemitism in Germany From Kant to Wagner, Princeton UP, Princeton, 1990.

SALMON, Y., Religion and Zionism: First Encounters. University Magnes Press, Jerusalem, 2002.

SAPHIRA, A., Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force 1881-1948, Oxford UP, New York, 1992.

SCHAMA, S., The Rotschilds and the Land of Israel, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1978.

SCHORSKE, C., Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture, Random House USA Inc., New York, 1993.

SHARP, W. y ANDERSON, J. P., Life of Heinrich Heine. W. Scott and T. Whittaker, London-New York, 1888.

SHAPIRO, A., Yosef Haim Brenner. A Life, Stanford U. P., Standford, 2014.

SHIMONI, G., The Zionist Ideology, University Press of New England, Hannover, 1995.

SINGER, B., “Clemenceau and the Jews”, Jewish Social Studies, 43, I, 1981, 47-51.

SINKOFF, N., Out of the Shtetl: Making Jews Modern in the Polish Borderlands, Brown Judaic Studies, Providence, 2003.

SMOLENSKIN, P., “The Haskalah of Berlin”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1883], 154-155.

STEIN, L. Ed., The Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann. 4 vol. Oxford UP, London, 1968.

STERNHELL, Z., The founding myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State, Princeton UP, Princeton, 1998.

SYRKIN, N., “The Jewish Problem and the Socialist-Jewish State”, HERTZBERG, A. (ed.), The Zionist Idea. A Historical Analysis and Reader, Atheneum, New York, 1959 [1898], 333-350.

TAGUIEFF, P.-A., La judeophobie des modernes. Des lumieres au jihad mundial, Odile Jacob, Paris, 2008.

TREITCHSKE, H. von,. A Word about our Jewry (Readings in Modern Jewish History), 1879. Disponible en http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/411_Treitschke_Jews%20are%20Misfortune_112.pdf

URY, S., “Strange Bedfellows? Anti-Semitism, Zionism, and the Fate of “the Jews”, The American Historical Review, Volume 123, 4, 2018, 1151–1171.

VALMANN, N., The Jewess in Nineteenth-Century British Literary Culture, Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 2007.

VIORST, M., Zionism: The Birth and Transformation of an Ideal, Saint Martin’s Press, Dunne, 2016.

VITAL, D., Zionism: The Crucial Phase, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987.

WISTRICH, R. S., “Theodor Herzl: Zionist Icon, Myth-Maker and Social Utopian”, WISTRICH, R. y OHANA, D. eds., The Shaping of Israeli Identity. Myth, Memory and Trauma, Frank Cass. London, 1995, 1-37.

ZIMMERMANN, M., Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of Anti-Semitism, Oxford U.P., New York, 1986.

ZUR, Y., “German Jewish Orthodoxy’s attitude toward Zionism”, ALMOG, S., REINHARZ, J., SHAPIRA, A., Zionism and Religion. Brandeis UP, Hanover and London, 1998, 107-115.