Itxaso Tellado Simona Sava
As Lev Vygotsky defined the Zone of Proximal Development, he did not imagine children interacting only with adults who had teaching expertise, such as teachers; instead, he meant "adult guidance" in a broad sense. This article examines the interactions between students and adults with a wide range of backgrounds in various contexts of dialogic learning. A literature review, plus six case studies conducted in different European countries as part of the INCLUD-ED project, show that students learn more if they engage in activities with various adults in their community. This finding has clear pedagogical implications: non-expert adults provide new ways of teaching the same material, which transforms the traditional teaching, enriching the learning process and improving students' results.