Effect of the EFE-P program on the improvement of executive functions in early childhood education // Efecto del programa EFE-P en la mejora de las funciones ejecutivas en Educación Infantil
Intervention to improve executive functions is crucial in preschool education because preschoolers benefit most from intervention programs. The objective of this study is to present the results obtained from implementing the “Executive Function Training Program in Preschool”, which is claimed to improve inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. The participants in this study are 100 children aged five to six years, drawn from two schools in Granada (Spain). In order to assess the impact of the program, pre- and post-intervention measurements are obtained from members of the experimental group, and these compared with corresponding measurements for a control group, using hierarchical regression and linear mixed model analysis. Executive functions are evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). The study results show that the intervention program has a significant impact on all the executive function variables analyzed, with large effect sizes (Cohen's f and Hedges’ g). Executive functions are essential for many of the skills required in adult life, such as memory, creativity, flexibility, self-control and compliance with rules and norms. For this reason, there is a real need to create programs that promote the development of these functions in the early stages of life. Programs such as Executive Function Training Program in Preschool can be implemented by teachers within the standard curriculum, using materials that are readily available in schools.