Un análisis empírico de los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento social: Un enfoque de género



Publicado 25-02-2021
Ambreen Khursheed
Maham Fatima
Dr. Faisal Mustafa
Dr. Rab Nawaz Lodhi
Ayesha Akhtar


Finalidad: Este estudio examina el modo en que los factores del ecosistema empresarial (financiación empresarial, educación empresarial, infraestructura física y comercial, cultura y actividades de transferencia de I+D) dan forma a las actividades empresariales sociales (AES) de hombres y mujeres.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque: Para un periodo de diez años (2005-2014) se examinan datos de panel de 35 países mediante los Métodos Generales de Momentos (GMM), empleando el test de Are[1]llano Bond.

Hallazgos: Nuestros resultados indican que las mujeres son más propensas a involucrarse en la creación de empresas sociales. Además, los seis factores empresariales seleccionados modifican las AES de una manera significativamente diferente para ambos géneros.

Originalidad/valor: Sobre la base de este análisis, el presente estudio es el primero en ofrecer una visión más profunda para mejorar la evaluación de las actividades empresariales sociales en economías impulsadas por la eficiencia y la innovación dentro del ecosistema empresarial.

Cómo citar

Khursheed, A., Fatima, M., Mustafa, D. F., Nawaz Lodhi, D. R., & Akhtar, A. (2021). Un análisis empírico de los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento social: Un enfoque de género. Cuadernos De Gestión, 21(2). https://doi.org/10.5295/cdg.201320ak
Abstract 193 | PDF (English) Downloads 70



Emprendimiento social, Ecosistema empresarial, Cultura, Social ventures, Género, Test de Arellano Bond

Acs, Z., Audretsch, D., 2006. Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.

Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B. and Lehmann, E. E., 2013. The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 41(4), 757-774.

Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., Audretsch, D. B. and Carlsson, B., 2009. The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Eco- nomics, 32(1), 15-30.

Acs, Z. J., Desai, S. and Hessels, J., 2008. Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 219- 234.

Acs, Z. J., Stam, E., Audretsch, D. B. and O’Connor, A., 2017. The line- ages of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Small Business Eco- nomics, 49(1), 1-10.

Ahl, H. 2004. The scientific reproduction of gender inequality: A dis- course analysis of research texts on women’s entrepreneurship. Liber.

Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M.M., Ahmad, Z., Shaukat, M.Z., Usman, A., Rehman, W., U. and Ahmed, N., 2010. Determinants of students’entrepreneuri- al career intentions: evidence from businessgraduates. European Jour- nal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 14-22

Alibhai, S., Donald, A. A., Goldstein, M., Oguz, A. A., Pankov, A. and Strobbe, F., 2019. Gender Bias in SME Lending: Experimental Evidence from Turkey. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (9100).

Alter, K., 2007. Social enterprise typology. Virtue Ventures LLC, 12, 1-124.

Alvord, S. H., Brown, L. D. and Letts, C. W., 2004. Social entrepreneur- ship and societal transformation: An exploratory study. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260-282.

Amorós, J. E. and Bosma, N., 2014. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013 global report. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Retrieved from https://www.gemconsortium.org/report/gem-2013-global-re- port.

Amorós, J. E., Poblete, C. and Mandakovic, V., 2019. R&D transfer, pol- icy and innovative ambitious entrepreneurship: evidence from Latin American countries. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 44, 1396-1415.

Arellano, M., 2003. Panel data econometrics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arellano, M. and Bond, S., 1991. Some tests of specification for pan- el data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. The Review of Economic Studies, 58(2), 277-297.

Ashrafi, D. M., Sarker, M. A. R., Binti Hashim, J., Haque, A., and Nayan, F. K., 2020. An exploration of the youths perception toward social entrepreneurship development: Evidence from Bangladesh. JEMA: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Akuntansi Dan Manajemen, 17(1), 88-104. https://doi.org/10.31106/jema.v17i1.5539

Audretsch, D. B. and Lehmann, E. E., 2005. Does the knowledge spill- over theory of entrepreneurship hold for regions? Research Policy, 34(8), 1191-1202.

Audretsch, D. B., Heger, D. and Veith, T., 2015. Infrastructure and entre- preneurship. Small Business Economics, 44(2), 219-230.

Austin, J., Stevenson, H. and Wei‐Skillern, J., 2006. Social and commer- cial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1-22.

Beckmann, M., Zeyen, A. and Krzeminska, A., 2014. Mission, finance, and innovation: The similarities and differences between social en- trepreneurship and social business. In Social business. Berlin, Hei- delberg: Springer, 23-41.

Bhushan, B., 2020. Motivational Model of Social Entrepreneurship: Exploring the Shaping of Engagement of Social Entrepreneur. In Methodological Issues in Social Entrepreneurship Knowledge and Practice. Singapore: Springer, 111-136.

Bosma, N., Schutjens, V. and Volker, B., 2016. Local social entrepreneur- ship and social capital. In Handbook of Social Capital and Regional Development. Edward Elgar Publishing, 55-81.

Bitzenis, A. and Nito, E., 2005. Obstacles to entrepreneurship in a tran- sition business environment: the case of Albania. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12(4), 564-578.

Black, S. E. and Strahan, P. E., 2002. Entrepreneurship and bank credit availability. The Journal of Finance, 57(6), 2807-2833.

Blanchflower, D. G., Levine, P. B. and Zimmerman, D. J., 2003. Discrim- ination in the small-business credit market. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(4), 930-943.

Brush, C., Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. and Welter, F., 2019. A gen- dered look at entrepreneurship ecosystems. Small Business Econom- ics, 53(2), 393-408.

Canestrino, R., Ćwiklicki, M., Magliocca, P. and Pawełek, B., 2020. Un- derstanding social entrepreneurship: A cultural perspective in business research. Journal of Business Research, 110, 132-143.

Capella-Peris, C., Gil-Gómez, J., Martí-Puig, M. and Ruíz-Bernardo, P., 2020. Development and validation of a scale to assess social entre- preneurship competency in higher education. Journal of Social En- trepreneurship, 11(1), 23-39.

Cohen, B. and Winn, M. I., 2007. Market imperfections, opportunity and sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 29-49.

Cater, J. J. and Beal, B. D., 2015. Servant leadership in multigeneration- al family firms. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneur- ship, 20(4), 25.

Chandra, Y. and Paras, A., 2020. Social entrepreneurship in the context of disaster recovery: Organizing for public value creation. Public Management Review, 1-22.

Craney, T. A. and Surles, J. G., 2002. Model-dependent variance infla- tion factor cut off values. Quality Engineering, 14(3), 391-403.

Clark, K. D., Newbert, S. L. and Quigley, N. R., 2018. The motivation- al drivers underlying for-profit venture creation: Comparing social and commercial entrepreneurs. International Small Business Jour- nal, 36(2), 220-241.

Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T. and Matear, M., 2010. Social entrepreneur- ship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37-57.

Davis, K., 1973. The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management Journal, 16, 312-322.

Dawson, P. and Daniel, L., 2010. Understanding social innovation: a provisional framework. International Journal of Technology Management, 51(1), 9-21.

De Bruin, A. M. and Ferrante, F. M., 2011. Bounded opportunity: A knowledge-based approach to opportunity recognition and development. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 1(4).

Deb, R., and Bhatt, D. K., 2020. Technology integration through digital learning hub in skill-oriented entrepreneurial education. Journal of Engineering Education Transformations, 33, 503-509.

Dees, J. G. and Elias, J., 1998. The challenges of combining social and commercial enterprise. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(1), 165-178.

Delmar, F. and Davidsson, P., 2000. Where do they come from? Preva- lence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(1), 1-23.

Desa, G., 2012. Resource mobilization in international social entrepre- neurship: Bricolage as a mechanism of institutional transformation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(4), 727-751.

DeTienne, D. R. and Chandler, G. N., 2004. Opportunity identifica- tion and its role in the entrepreneurial classroom: A pedagogical approach and empirical test. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3), 242-257.

Digan, S. P., Sahi, G. K., Mantok, S. and Patel, P. C., 2019. Women’s Per- ceived Empowerment in Entrepreneurial Efforts: The Role of Bri- colage and Psychological Capital. Journal of Small Business Manage- ment, 57(1), 206-229.

Dwivedi, A. and Weerawardena, J., 2018. Conceptualizing and opera- tionalizing the social entrepreneurship construct. Journal of Business Research, 86, 32-40.

Doherty, B., 2018. Research in the social enterprise journal–from the margins to the mainstream. Social Enterprise Journal, 14(1), 108-116. Etzioni, A., 1987. Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation: a macro-behavioral perspective. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 8(2), 175-189.

Feld, B., 2012. Startup communities: Building an entrepreneurial ecosys- tem in your city. John Wiley & Sons.

Ferreira, J. J., Fernandes, C. I., Peres-Ortiz, M. and Alves, H., 2017. Con- ceptualizing social entrepreneurship: perspectives from the literature. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 14(1), 73-93.

Friedman, M., 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. The New York Times Magazine.

Ghani, E., Kerr, W. R. and O’connell, S., 2014. Spatial determinants of entrepreneurship in India. Regional Studies, 48(6), 1071-1089.

Gottleib, E. and Ross, J. A., 1997. Made not born: HBS courses and entre- preneurial management. Harvard Business School Bulletin, 73(2), 41-45. Goyal, M. and Parkash, J., 2011. Women entrepreneurship in In- dia-problems and prospects. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(5), 195-207.

Halberstadt, J., Timm, J. M., Kraus, S. and Gundolf, K., 2019. Skills and knowledge management in higher education: how service learning can contribute to social entrepreneurial competence develop- ment. Journal of Knowledge Management, 23(10), 1925-1948.

Hall, J. K., Daneke, G. A. and Lenox, M. J., 2010. Sustainable develop- ment and entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 439-448.

Harrington, C. and Clarkson, G. S., 2019. Native American Approaches to Social Entrepreneurship. In Mission-Driven Approaches in Modern Business Education. IGI Global, 46-61.

Hashmi, S., 2019. Entrepreneurship: Challenges or opportunities for women. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 9(5), 366-374.

Hofstede, G., 1980. Motivation, leadership, and organization: do Amer- ican theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.
Honig, B., 2004. Entrepreneurship education: Toward a model of con- tingency-based business planning. Academy of Management Learing & Education, 3(3), 258–273.

Hsu, C. Y. and Wang, S. M., 2019. Social entrepreneurial intentions and its influential factors: A comparison of students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Innovations in Education and Teaching Internation- al, 56(3), 385-395.

House, R. J., 1998. A brief history of GLOBE. Journal of Managerial Psy- chology, 13(3/4), 230-240.

Inglehart, R., 1997. Modernization and post modernization: Cultural, eco- nomic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton university press. Jensen, T. L., 2014. A holistic person perspective in measuring entrepreneurship education impact–Social entrepreneurship education at the Humanities. The International Journal of Management Edu- cation, 12(3), 349-364.

Kedmenec, I. and Strašek, S., 2017. Are some cultures more favourable for social entrepreneurship than others? Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 30(1), 1461-1476.

Karadeniz, E. and Ozdemir, O., 2009. Entrepreneurship in Turkey and developing countries: A comparison of activities, characteristics, motivation and environment for entrepreneurship. Mibes Transac- tions, 3(1), 30-45.

Khursheed, A., Mustafa, F., Fatima, M. and Khalid, F., 2019. Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Cross-Country Study of Northern Europe and the Danube Region. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 12(4), 593-627.

Khursheed, A., Mustafa, F., Fatima, M. and Siddique, F., 2018. Entrepre- neurial Intentions: GEM based empirical analysis on the northern Europe and Asian countries. International Journal of Entrepreneuri- al Knowledge, 6(2), 59-70.

Kong, E., 2019. Harnessing and advancing knowledge in social enter- prises: Theoretical and operational challenges in the refugee settlement experience. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10(2), 193-210. Korsgaard, S., 2011. Opportunity formation in social entrepreneurship. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 5(4), 265-285.

Kruse, P., Wach, D., Costa, S. and Moriano, J. A., 2019. Values Matter, Don’t They?–Combining Theory of Planned Behavior and Personal Values as Predictors of Social Entrepreneurial Intention. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 55-83.

Kumar, D. and Kalyani, B., 2011. Motivational factors, entrepreneurship and education: Study with reference to women in SMEs. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, 3(2), 14-35.

Lehner, O. M. and Kansikas, J., 2012. Opportunity recognition in social entrepreneurship: A thematic meta-analysis. The Journal of Entre- preneurship, 21(1), 25-58.

Levie, J. and Autio, E., 2008. A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 235-263.

Lounsbury, M., Cornelissen, J., Granqvist, N. and Grodal, S., 2019. Cul- ture, Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Innovation, 21(1), 1-12.

Lumpkin, G.T., Moss, T.W., Gras, D.M., Kato, S. and Amezcua, A.S., 2013. Entrepreneurial processes in social contexts: how are they different, if at all? Small Business Economics, 40, 761-783.

Mair, J. and Marti, I., 2006. Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36-44.

Markman, G. D., Gianiodis, P. T., Phan, P. H. and Balkin, D. B., 2004. Entrepreneurship from the ivory tower: do incentive systems matter? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 29(3-4), 353-364.

Marlow, S. and Patton, D., 2005. All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717-735.

Mittal, M. and Vyas, R. K., 2011. A study of psychological reasons for gender differences in preferences for risk and investment decision making. IUP Journal of Behavioral Finance, 8(3).

Morimoto, T., 2018. Occupational choice and entrepreneurship: ef- fects of R&D subsidies on economic growth. Journal of Econom- ics, 123(2), 161-185.

Mueller, S., Brahm, T. and Neck, H., 2015. Service learning in social entrepreneurship education: Why students want to become social entrepreneurs and how to address their motives. Journal of Enter- prising Culture, 23(03), 357-380.

Mustafa, F. Khursheed, A. and Fatima, M., 2018. Impact of global fi- nancial crisis on financially innovative microfinance institutions in South Asia. Financial Innovation, 4(1), 1-11.

Omorede, A., 2014. Exploration of motivational drivers towards social entrepreneurship. Social Enterprise Journal, 10(3), 239-267.

Pergelova, A., Manolova, T., Simeonova‐Ganeva, R. and Yordanova, D., 2019. Democratizing Entrepreneurship? Digital Technologies and the Internationalization of Female‐Led SMEs. Journal of Small Busi- ness Management, 57(1), 14-39.

Perrini, F., Vurro, C. and Costanzo, L. A., 2010. A process-based view of social entrepreneurship: From opportunity identification to scaling-up social change in the case of San Patrignano. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(6), 515-534.

Peterman, N. E. and Kennedy, J., 2003. Enterprise education: Influenc- ing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(2), 129-144.

Prieto, L. C., Phipps, S. T. and Friedrich, T. L., 2012. Social entrepreneur development: An integration of critical pedagogy, the theory of planned behavior and the ACS model. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 18(2).

Reynolds, P., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I. and Chin, N., 2005. Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small Business Econom- ics, 24(3), 205-231.

Ruvio, A. A. and Shoham, A., 2011. A multilevel study of nascent social ventures. International Small Business Journal, 29(5), 562-579.

Rey-Martí, A., Ribeiro-Soriano, D. and Palacios-Marqués, D., 2016. A bibliometric analysis of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1651-1655.

Sahasranamam, S. and Nandakumar, M. K., 2020. Individual capital and social entrepreneurship: Role of formal institutions. Journal of Business Research, 107, 104-117.

Santos, F. M., 2012. A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335-351.

Schwartz, S. H., 1994. Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45.

Seelos, C. and Mair, J., 2007. Profitable business models and market cre- ation in the context of deep poverty: A strategic view. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(4), 49-63.

Servantie, V. and Rispal, M. H., 2018. Bricolage, effectuation, and causa- tion shifts over time in the context of social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 30(3-4), 310-335.

Shane, S. A., 1996. Hybrid organizational arrangements and their im- plications for firm growth and survival: A study of new franchisors. Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 216-234.

Sharir, M. and Lerner, M., 2006. Gauging the success of social ventures initiated by individual social entrepreneurs. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 6-20.

Shaw, E. and Carter, S., 2007. Social entrepreneurship: Theoretical an- tecedents and empirical analysis of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(3), 418-434.

Schneider, K., 2017. Promoting the entrepreneurial success of women entrepreneurs through education and training. Science Journal of Education, 5(2), 50-59.

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S. and Al-Laham, A., 2007. Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 566-591.

Short, J. C., Moss, T. W. and Lumpkin, G. T., 2009. Research in social en- trepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161-194.

Thompson, J. L., 2002. The world of the social entrepreneur. The Inter- national Journal of Public Sector Management, 15, 412-431.

Urban, B. and Kujinga, L., 2017. The institutional environment and so- cial entrepreneurship intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(4), 638-655.

Van Slyke, D. M. and Newman, H. K., 2006. Venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship in community redevelopment. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 16(3), 345-368.

Van Stel, A., Storey, D. J. and Thurik, A. R., 2007. The effect of business regulations on nascent and young business entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2-3), 171-186.

Wakkee, I., van der Sijde, P., Vaupell, C. and Ghuman, K., 2019. The university’s role in sustainable development: Activating entrepreneurial scholars as agents of change. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 141, 195-205.

Welter, F., 2011. Contextualizing entrepreneurship—conceptual chal- lenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165-184.

Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O. and Shulman, J. M., 2009. A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519-532