Descubriendo temas destacados de la aplicación de la tecnología de eye tracking en la investigación de marketing



Publicado 11-02-2022
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva
María Eugenia Rodríguez-López
Bárbara García-Martí


El presente estudio presenta los principales resultados de un análisis bibliométrico de la investigación académica que ha aplicado la tecnología de seguimiento ocular (eye tracking) en la disciplina del marketing, a partir de 923 documentos extraídos de la base de datos bibliográfica WoS. Los objetivos del estudio son (i) identificar la estructura de las relaciones entre los temas de investigación pasados y actuales, (ii) proporcionar una perspectiva longitudinal sobre el eye tracking como herramienta de investigación usada por los académicos, cubriendo el período 1992-2020, e (iii) identificar las tendencias de investigación emergentes para el futuro.

  Entre otros resultados, encontramos que la metodología de eye tracking se ha aplicado en la investigación de marketing especialmente en la última década debido al interés por estudiar la atención visual de los consumidores y usuarios en los estudios de comportamiento. En términos más generales, en los últimos 30 años se han identificado cinco grandes áreas temáticas: (a) modelización-marca-atención, (b) seguimiento ocular-movimientos-comunicación, (c) web-online, (d) HCI-mirada-percepción y (e) elección-etiquetado.    El trabajo es el primero en identificar la estructura de las relaciones entre los temas de investigación pasados y actuales, y en predecir las futuras tendencias de investigación en los estudios de marketing que aplican eye tracking como herramienta de investigación. Al final del trabajo se discuten algunas limitaciones y posibles temas de investigación futura.

Cómo citar

Muñoz-Leiva, F., Rodríguez-López, M. E., & García-Martí, B. (2022). Descubriendo temas destacados de la aplicación de la tecnología de eye tracking en la investigación de marketing. Cuadernos De Gestión, 22(1), 97–113.
Abstract 305 | PDF (English) Downloads 174



Eye tracking, Marketing, Web of science, SciMAT, Mapa bibliométrico, Diagrama estratégico, Red temática

Antúnez L., Vidal, L., Sapolinski, A., Giménez, A., Maiche, A., and Ares, G., 2013. How do design features influence consumer attention when looking for nutritional information on food labels? Results from an eye-tracking study on pan bread labels. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 64(5), 515-527.
Ares, G., 2007. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods. Appetite, 49(1), 148-158.
Bogart, L., and Tolley, B.S., 1988. The search for information in newspaper advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(2), 9-19.
Bolz, M., Kriechbaum, K., Simader, C., Deak, G., and Lammer, J., 2010. In vivo retinal morphology after grid laser treatment in diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology, 117(3), 538-544.
Börner, K., Chen, C., and Boyack, K. W., 2003. Visualizing knowledge domains. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 37(1), 179-255.
Brousseau, B., Rose, J., and Eizenman, M., 2020. Hybrid Eye-Tracking on a Smartphone with CNN Feature Extraction and an Infrared 3D Model. Sensors, 20(2), 543.
Callon, M., Courtial, J., and Penan, H., 1995. Cienciometría, Trea, Gijón.
Callon, M., Courtial, J. P., and Laville, F., 1991. Co-word analysis as a tool for describing the network of interactions between basic and technological research the case of polymer chemistry. Scientometrics, 22(1), 155-205.
Callon, M., Courtial, J.P., Turner, W.A., and Bauin, S., 1983. From Translations to Problematic Networks: An Introduction to Co-word Analysis. Social Science Information, 22(2), 191-235.
Cambrosio, A., Limoges, C., Courtial, J.P., and Laville, F., 1993. Historical scientometrics? Mapping over 70 years of biological safety research with co-word analysis. Scientometrics, 27(2), 119-143.
Chandon, P., Hutchinson, J. W., Bradlow, E. T., and Young, S. H., 2009. Does in-store marketing work? Effects of the number and position of shelf facings on brand attention and evaluation at the point of purchase. Journal of marketing, 73(6), 1-17.
Clay, V., Kömig, P., and Koeming, S., 2019. Eye Tracking in Virtual Reality. Journal of Eye Movement Reaseach, 12(1), p. 3.
Cobo, M.J., López-Herrera, A.G., Herrera, F., and Herrera-Viedma, E., 2012a. A note on the its topic evolution in the period 2000-2009 at T-ITS. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 13(1), 413-420.
Cobo, M.J., López-Herrera, A.G., Herrera, F., and Herrera-Viedma, E., 2012b. SciMAT: A new Science Mapping Analysis Software Tool. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1609-1630.
Cobo, M. J., López-Herrera, A. G., Herrera-Viedma, E., and Herrera, F., 2011. An approach for detecting, quantifying, and visualizing the evolution of a research field: A practical application to the fuzzy sets theory field. Journal of Informetrics, 5(1), 146-166.
Comunicae, 2009. EyeTrackUX2009, Conferencia internacional sobre eye tracking. Barcelona.
Copeland, L., and Gedeon, T., 2014. What are you reading most: attention in eLearning. Procedia Computer Science, 39, 67-74 (2014).
Cyr, D., Head, M., and Larios, H., 2010. Colour appeal in website design within and across cultures: A multi-method evaluation. International journal of human-computer studies, 68(1-2), 1-21.
Cyr, D., Head, M., Larios, H., & Pan, B. (2009). Exploring human images in website design: a multi-method approach. MIS quarterly, 539-566.
Dalton, K.M., Nacewicz, B.M., Alexander, A.L., and Davidson, R.J., 2007. Gaze-Fixation, Brain Activation, and Amygdala Volume in Unaffected Siblings of Individuals with Autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61(4), 512-520.
Del Barrio-García, S., Muñoz-Leiva, F., and Golden, L., 2020. A review of comparative advertising research 1975-2018: Thematic and citation analyses. Journal of Business Research, 121(12), 73-84.
Ding, Y., Chowdhury, G. G., and Foo, S., 2001. Bibliometric cartography of information retrieval research by using co-word analysis. Information processing & management, 37(6), 817-842.
Drusch, G., Bastien, J. C., and Paris, S., 2014. Analysing eye-tracking data: From scanpaths and heatmaps to the dynamic visualisation of areas of interest. Advances in science, technology, higher education and society in the conceptual age: STHESCA, 20(205), 25.
Echchakoui, S., and Mathieu, A., 2008. Marketing trends: Content analysis of the major journals (2001-2006). Proceedings of Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Nova Scotia, May 27-28, 114-126.
Espigares-Jurado, F., Muñoz-Leiva, F., Correia, M., Sousa, C., Ramos, C., and Faísca, L., 2020. Visual attention to the main image of a hotel website based on its position type of navigation and belonging to Millennial generation: An eye tracking study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 52, 101-906.
Farzin, F., Rivera, S.M., and Hessl, D., 2009. Brief Report: Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(6), 946-952.
Flavián, C., Gurrea, R., and Orús, C., 2011. Analyzing the emotional outcomes of the online search behaviour with search engines. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 540-551. chb.2010.10.002
Flir, 2016. Refinación del rendimiento del rastro ocular con Chameleon3 USB 3.1. Retrieved from:
Galesic, M., Tourangeau, R., Couper, M. P., and Conrad, F. G., 2008. Eye-tracking data: New insights on response order effects and other cognitive shortcuts in survey responding. Public opinion quarterly, 72(5), 892-913.
Garfield, E., 1990. Current comments. Keywords plus-ISIS breakthrough retrieval method. 1. Expanding your searching power on current-contents on diskette. Current Contents, 32, 295-299.
Gascó, V., 2020. Herramientas de mapas de calor y eye tracking para optimizar ventas. Saleslayer. Retrieved from:
Glanzel, W., 2015. Bibliometrics-aided retrieval: Where information retrieval meets scientometrics. Scientometrics, 102, 2215-2222.
Hafez, M., 2019. Neuromaketing: A new avatar in branding and advertisement. Pacific Business Review International, 12, 58-64.
Hassan, Y., and Herrero, V., 2007. Eye-tracking en Interacción Persona-Ordenador. Máster Universitario Online en Diseño de Experiencia de Usuario. Universidad Internacional de la Rioja.
Hernández-Méndez, J., and Muñoz-Leiva, F., 2015. What type of online advertising is most effective for eTourism 2.0? An eye tracking study based on the characteristics of tourists. Computers in human Behavior, 50, 618-625.
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., and Van de Weijer, J., 2011. Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Izaguirre-Torres, D., Málaga-Juárez, J., Ricardo Chuqui-Diestra, S., Velasquez-Ccosi, P.F., and Siche, R., 2020. Neuroscience in the advertising of agri-food products: A beneficial tool or a public health hazard?. Scientia Agropecuaria, 11(4), 629-639.
Joseph, A. W., and Murugesh, R., 2020. Potential Eye Tracking Metrics and Indicators to Measure Cognitive Load in Human Computer Interaction Research. Journal of Scientific Research, 64(1), 168-175.
Juárez Varón, D., Tur-Viñes, V., and Mengual, A., 2019. Análisis del diseño de packaging de juguete educativo, mediante neuromarketing. Cuadernos Latinoamericanos de Administración, 15(28).
Just, M.A., and Carpenter, P.A., 1992. Una teoría de la capacidad de comprensión: diferencias individuales en la memoria de trabajo. Psychological Review, 99(1), 122-149.
Kumar, P., and Polonsky, M. J. 2017. An analysis of the green consumer domain within sustainability research: 1975 to 2014. Australasian Marketing Journal, 25(2), 85-96.
Kumar, P., Sharma, A., and Salo, J., 2019. A bibliometric analysis of extended key account management list. Industrial Marketing Management, 82, 276-292.
Lai, M.L., Tsai, M.J., Yang, F.Y., Hsu, C.Y., Liu, T.H., Lee, S.W.Y, Lee, M.H., Chiou, G.L., Liang, J.C., and Tsai, C.C., 2013. A review of using eye-tracking technology in exploring learning from 2000 to 2012. Educational Research Review, 10, 90-115.
Lee, B., and Jeong, Y. I., 2008. Mapping Korea’s national R&D domain of robot technology by using the co-word analysis. Scientometrics, 77(1), 3-19.
Leone, R.P., Robinson, L.M., Bragge, J., and Somervuori, O., 2012. A citation and profiling analysis of pricing research from 1980 to 2010. Journal of Business Research, 65, 1010-1024.
Matthews, O., Dovies, A., Vigo, M., and Harper, S., 2020. Unabtrusive arousal detection on the web using pupillary response. International Journal of Human-Computer Structure, 136, 102361.
Montero-Díaz J., Cobo M., Gutiérrez-Salcedo M., Segado-Boj F., Herrera-Viedma E., 2018. A science mapping analysis of ‘Communication’ WoS subject category (1980-2013). Comunicar, 26(55), 81-91.
Moral-Muñoz, J.A., Herrera-Viedma, E., Santisteban, A., and Cobo, M.J., 2020. Software tools for conducting bibliometric analysis in science: an up-to-datereview. El Profesional de la Información. 29(1) e290103.
Moral-Muñoz, J.A., López-Herrera, A.G., Herrera-Viedma, E., and Cobo, M.J., 2019. Science mapping analysis software tools: A review, in Springer handbook of science and technology indicators, 159-185. Retrieved from:
Muñoz-Leiva, F., Hernández-Méndez, J., and Gómez-Carmona, D., 2019. Measuring advertising effectiveness in Travel 2.0 websites through eye-tracking technology. Physiology and Behavior, 200(1), 83-95.
Muñoz-Leiva, F., Liébana-Cabanillas, F., and Hernández-Méndez, J., 2018. Etourism advertising effectiveness: Banner type and engagement as moderators. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(4), 462-475.
Muñoz-Leiva, F., Porcu, L., and Del Barrio-García, S., 2015. Discovering prominent themes of Integrated Marketing Communication research from 1991 to 2012: A co-word analytic approach. International Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 678-701.
Muñoz-Leiva, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., Liébana-Cabanillas, F.J., and López-Herrera, A.G., 2012. Applying an automatic approach for showing up the hidden themes in financial marketing research (1961-2010). Expert Systems with Applications. 39(12), 11055-11065.
Murgado-Armenteros, E. M., Gutiérrez-Salcedo, M., Torres-Ruiz, F. J., and Cobo, M. J., 2015. Analysing the conceptual evolution of qualitative marketing research through science mapping analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 519-557.
Ortiz, D., 2020. Marketing y publicidad: ¿cuáles son las diferencias? Cyberclick. Retrieved from: marketing-y-publicidad-cuales-son-las-diferencias
Phan, K. L., Wager, T., Taylor, S. F., and Liberzon, I., 2002. Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage, 16(2), 331-348.
Pieters, R., and Wedel, M., 2004. Attention capture and transfer in advertising: Brand, pictorial, and text-size effects. Journal of Marketing, 68(2), 36-50.
Pieters, R., and Warlop, L., 1999. Visual attention during brand choice: The impact of time pressure and task motivation. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16 (1), 1-16.
Pieters, R., Wedel, M., and Van der Lans, R., 2019. Eye tracking methodology for research in consumer Psychology. New York. Routledge.
Pieters, R., Wedel, M., and Rosbergen, E., 1999. Visual attention to repeated print advertising: A test of scanpath theory, Journal of Marketing Research, 36(4), 424-438.
Poole, A., and Ball, L.J., 2006. Eye Tracking in HCI and Usability Research, in Ghaoui, C. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Computer Interaction, IGI Global, Hershey, Pennsylvania (USA).
Pritchard, A., 1969. Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics? Journal of Documentation, 25(4), 348-349.
Qiu, S., Hu, J., and Han, T., 2020. Social Glasses: Simulating Interactive Gaze for Visually Impared People in Face-to-Face Communication. International Journal of HumanComputer Interaction, 36(9), 839-855.
Ramírez, A., 2012. Eye-tracking: una técnica de seguimiento de la mirada utilizada en la validación de unidades de aprendizaje. Conference: XIII Encuentro Internacional Virtual Educa Panamá. Retrieved from:
Rayner, K., 1998. Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372-422.
Reisen, N, Hoffrage, U., and Mast, F.W., 2008. Identifying decision strategies in a consumer choice situation. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(8), 641-658.
Reyes, M., 2017. Registro de patrones de lectura con dispositivos de eye tracker de bajo coste y estudio de su aplicación para la recomendación de diagnósticos de patologías. Escuela Politécnica Superior, Madrid.
Rodríguez-López, M.E., Alcántara-Pilar, J.M., Del Barrio-García, S., and Muñoz-Leiva, F., 2020. A review of restaurant research in the last two decades: A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 87, 102387.
Romano-Bergstrom, J., and Schall, A.J., 2014. Eye tracking in user experience design. Elsevier: Waltham, MA (USA).
Rumpf, C., Breuer, C., and Boronczyk, F., 2020. Predicting consumer gaze hits: A simulation model of visual attention to dynamic marketing stimuli. Journal of Business Research, 111, 208-217.
Rytewiki, 2019. Eye Tracking. Copyright. Retrieved from:
Sci2s: Soft Computing and Intelligent Information Systems Research Group, 2011. SciMAT (v. 1.0) [Software]. University of Granada, Granada, available online in:
Senju, A., Southgate, V., White, S., and Frith, U., 2009. Mindblind eyes: an absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome. Science, 325(5942), 883-885.
Senju, A., and Csibra, G., 2008. Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals. Current Biology, 18(9), 668-671.
Siegrist, M., Leins-Hess, R., and Keller, C., 2015. Which front-of-pack nutrition label is the most efficient one? The results of an eye-tracker study. Food Quality and Preference, 39, 183-190.
Small, H., 1973. Co-citation in the scientific literature: a new measure of the relationship between two documents. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 24(4), 265-269.
Stagg, S., Linnell, K.J., and Heaton, P., 2014. Investigating eye movement patterns, language, and social ability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 26(2), 529-537.
Tazanidou, E., Petre, M., Minocha, S., and Grayson, A., 2005. Combining Eye.Tracking and Conventional Techniques for Indicacitons of User-Adaptability. IFIP Conference on Human, 3585, 753-766.
Teixera, T.S., Wedel, M., and Pieters, R., 2010. Moment-to-moment optimal branding in TV commercials: Preventing avoidance by pulsing. Marketing Science, 29(5), 783-804.
Treistman, J., and Gregg, J.P., 1979. Visual, Verbal and responses to print ads. Journal Of Adverstising Research, 19(4), 41-47.
Van Der Lans, R., Pieters, R., and Wedel, M., 2012. Eye-Movement Analysis of Search Effectiveness. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 103, 452-461.
Van Eck, N. J., and Waltman, L., 2009. How to normalize cooccurrence data? An analysis of some well-known similarity measures. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(8), 1635-1651.
Viedma‐Del‐Jesus, M. I., Perakakis, P., Muñoz, M. Á., López‐Herrera, A. G., and Vila, J., 2011. Sketching the first 45 years of the journal Psychophysiology (1964-2008): A co‐word‐based analysis. Psychophysiology, 48(8), 1029-1036.
Waltman, L., 2016. A review of the literature on citation impact indicators. Journal Of Informetrics, 10(2), 365-391.
Wang, Q.Z., Wedel, M., Huang, L.Q., and Lui, X., 2018. Effects of model eye gaze direction on consumer visual processing: Evidence from China and America. Information & Management, 55(5), 588-597.
Wang, S., Chen, Y., Yuan, Y., Haiyun, Y., and Zheng, S., 2016. Visualizing the Intellectual Structure of Eye Movement Research in Cartography. International Journal of Geo-Information, 5(10), 168, 1-22.
White, H.D., and McCain, K.W., 1998. Visualizing a discipline: An author co-citation analysis of information science, 1972-1995. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(4), 327-355.
Yang, Y., Wu, M., and Cui, L., 2012. Integration of three visualization methods based on co-word analysis. Scientometrics, 90, 659-673.
Yang, Y., and Wang, C.C., 2015. Trend of Using Eye Tracking Technology in Business Research. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 3(4), 447-451.
Yan, E., and Ding, Y., 2010. Weighted citation: An indicator of an article’s prestige. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 61, 1635-1643.
Young, E., 1984. Visibility archived by outdoor advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 24(4), 19-21.
Zeng, L., Zili, L., Zhao, Z., and Mao, M., 2018. Landscapes and Emerging Trends of Virtual Reality in Revent 30 Years; a Bibliometric Analysis. 2018 IEEE Smartworld, 8-12 Oct, 1852-1858.
Zurawicki, L., 2010. Neuromarketing: Exploring the brain of the consumer. Springer Science & Business Media.