At the moment of creating models of standard language, there is no doubt about the importance of the mass-media. Also in the case of Basque language. When, in the first middle of the 19th Century, because of the politic polarization, the journalism in Basque language appears (in 1834 the liberal men of San Sebastian published the firsts journalistic texts written in this language, in order to stand up to the influence that their enemies, the carlists, had in the popular classes of the Basque Country; and, in 1848, Joseph Augustin Chaho published the first journal entirely written in Basque language), also appears the worry about the need of using a linguistic model that most of Basque readers could understand. The solutions proposed in the Peninsular and Continental Basque, Country are quite different although in both cases there is a principal dialect. In the Continental Basque Country there is a transition from classical labourdin to a new koine, the so called literary navarre-Iabourdin, while the other dialect, the souletin, rests forgotten. In the Peninsular Basque Country the principal dialect is the Guipuscoan one (mostly the central variety), with Navarre journalists too tending to get their own dialect nearer to Guipuscoan one, and, on the other side, in Biscaya too models arise, one based on Añibarro's tradition (that Azkue proposed on their journal Euskalzale), and the one that Sabino Arana and his followers proposed. In this articule, we try to explain not only the linguistic models that appeared around the journalism in Basque language, but also the characteristics of both readers and journalists, and lecture costumes.
Díaz, Javier. 1994. «Gerra Aurreko Euskal Kazetaritza Eta Hizkuntz-Ereduak». Anuario Del Seminario De Filología Vasca "Julio De Urquijo" 28 (3):791-835. https://doi.org/10.1387/asju.8433.
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